HIS & HER IMPERIAL HIGHNESSES AND MAJESTYS KING AND QUEEN OF HEAVEN
“‘No longer will the people of Israel have malicious neighbors who are painful briers and sharp thorns. Then they will know that I am the Sovereign LORD.(Ezekiel 28:24)
EDOMITE ZIONIST - WHAT THEY DID
Blessed Love Family, in case you didn't know ( Black African Americans) are the Indigenous Hebrew Jews of Israel that was severely prosecuted and forced to escape into Africa. The whites - Edomites, known today as Zionist sought the help of Muslims to capture Judah and bring them to them to the slave coast where Judah was chained, transported and enslaved in America. All of this was done to steal the Hebrew Jewish Israelite Heritage and place Yahuwa' people under curses of oppression, and destruction. For centuries they have violated Judah's Jspiritual, clival and human rights and continue to find ways to hinder their progress to be liberated from a country that is not their own. From generation to generation they passed down to Judah Roman Catholic Christianity and that stopped the way inwhich Judah worshiped Almighty God when they transported Judah over into America. To add salt to an open womb, in schools Judah was brainwashed to believe Africa is their Homeland which is not true at all. We don't have to explain the destruction and slavery treatment ( Black Holocaust) that Judah has experienced as slaves in America, because this is well known. However, 2019 Father Yahuwah promise to restore Judah back to their Holy Land Israel. Genesis 15:12 -14 400 years 1619 -2019 ends Judah’s suffering in America. With this website, we are trying to awaken the Black Masses and the other 11 tribes scattered so that together we can gather our resources and reclaim what is rightfully ours; dignity, self respect and human right to be free.
Judgment against Enemy Nations
Joel 3: 1 “At the time of those events,” says the Lord,“when I restore the prosperity of Judah and Jerusalem, 2 I will gather the armies of the world into the valley of Jehoshaphat. There I will judge themfor harming my people, my special possession,for scattering my people among the nations, and for dividing up my land. They threw dice to decide which of my people would be their slaves. They traded boys to obtain prostitutes and sold girls for enough wine to get drunk.
Judah at the slave coast of Africa - after being chase out of Israel. Muslims help captured Judah, but Edomite Zionist sold Judah throughout America.
Blessed Love may our gracious and most merciful Heavenly Father,Son and Holy Spiit bless everyone with abundance grace, mercy and love for oneanother. In no way does this message reflects the personal opinion of the messenger, but rather directly from the Holy Biblical Scriptures land other reliabe sources. In no way are these messages intended to bring harm, but to bring forth light, knowledge and truth on the orgin and non Jewish Heritage of the Edomites that has been kept hidden in secret and darkness away from the consciouness of the world. Thus, the time has come to inform every European Edomite who claim to be a jew, to know they are not the Indigneous Jews of Israel, but the 12 Tribes of Israel is, and the Kingdom of Judah has been enslaved and oppressed for 400 yrs (1619- 2019) Genesis 15: 12-14
Judah returned to Isreal, Judha Edom's captivity of judah- while the 12 Tribes were in babylon Captivity, Edom moved to Isreal and set up a Kingdom under King Herod, after
According to The League of Nations - Mandate For Palestine, Zionist have no legal claims or rights to God's Holy Land. These legal binding documents indicade Zionist were given temporary authoriy to ensure the enhancement of Almight God's Holy land Israel and its indignous Hebrew Jews of Israel . Learn More Read : Judah and Israel United
From: Her Royal Imperial Highness and Majesty, End Time Apocalypse Queen of Heaven,
ISAIAH 34 A MESSAGE FOR THE NATIONS
Come here and listen, O nations of the earth. Let the world and everything in it hear my words. 2 For the Lord is enraged against the nations. His fury is against all their armies. He will completely destroy them,mdooming them to slaughter. 3 Their dead will be left unburied, and the stench of rotting bodies will fill the land.The mountains will flow with their blood.4 The heavens above will melt away and disappear like a rolled-up scroll. The stars will fall from the sky like withered leaves from a grapevine, or shriveled figs from a fig tree. 5 And when my sword has finished its work in the heavens, it will fall upon Edom, the nation I have marked for destruction. 6 The sword of the Lord is drenched with blood and covered with fat—with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of rams prepared for sacrifice. Yes, the Lord will offer a sacrifice in the city of Bozrah. He will make a mighty slaughter in Edom. 7 Even men as strong as wild oxen will die- the young men alongside the veterans. The land will be soaked with blood and the soil enriched with fat.8 For it is the day of the Lord’s revenge, the year when Edom will be paid back for all it did to Israel. 9 The streams of Edom will be filled with burning pitch, and the ground will be covered with fire. 10 This judgment on Edom will never end; the smoke of its burning will rise forever.
The Lord Will Punish the Edomites
1 This is the vision of Obadiah.
This is what the Lord God says about Edom: We have heard a message from the Lord. A messenger has been sent among the nations, saying,“Attack! Let’s go attack Edom!”
The Lord Speaks to the Edomites
2 “Soon I will make you the smallest of nations. You will be greatly hated by everyone. 3 Your pride has fooled you, you who live in the hollow places of the cliff. Your home is up high, you who say to yourself, ‘No one can bring me down to the ground.’ 4 Even if you fly high like the eagle and make your nest among the stars, I will bring you down from there,” says the Lord.5 “You will really be ruined! If thieves came to you, if robbers came by night, they would steal only enough for themselves. If workers came and picked the grapes from your vines, they would leave a few behind. 6 But you, Edom, will really lose everything! People will find all your hidden treasures! 7 All the people who are your friends will force you out of the land. The people who are at peace with you will trick you and defeat you. Those who eat your bread with you now are planning a trap for you, and you will not notice it.” 8 The Lord says, “On that day I will surely destroy the wise people from Edom, and those with understanding from the mountains of Edom. 9 Then, city of Teman, your best warriors will be afraid, and everyone from the mountains of Edom will be killed. 10 You did violence to your relatives, the Israelites, so you will be covered with shame and destroyed forever. 11 You stood aside without helping while strangers carried Israel’s treasures away. When foreigners entered Israel’s city gate and threw lots to decide what part of Jerusalem they would take, you were like one of them.
Commands That Edom Broke
12 “Edom, do not laugh at your brother Israel in his time of trouble or be happy about the people of Judah when they are destroyed. Do not brag when cruel things are done to them. 13 Do not enter the city gate of my people in their time of trouble or laugh at their problems in their time of trouble. Do not take their treasures in their time of trouble. 14 Do not stand at the crossroads to destroy those who are trying to escape. Do not capture those who escape alive and turn them over to their enemy in their time of trouble.
The Nations Will Be Judged
15 “The Lord’s day of judging is coming soon to all the nations. The same evil things you did to other people will happen to you; they will come back upon your own head. 16 Because you drank in my Temple, all the nations will drink on and on. They will drink and drink until they disappear. 17 But on Mount Zion some will escape the judgment, and it will be a holy place. The people of Jacob will take back their land from those who took it from them. 18 The people of Jacob will be like a fire and the people of Joseph like a flame. But the people of Esau[c] will be like dry stalks. The people of Jacob will set them on fire and burn them up.There will be no one left of the people of Esau.” This will happen because the Lord has said it.19 Then God’s people will regain southern Judah from Edom; they will take back the mountains of Edom.They will take back the western hills from the Philistines. They will regain the lands of Ephraim and Samaria, and Benjamin will take over Gilead. 20 People from Israel who once were forced to leave their homes will take the land of the Canaanites, all the way to Zarephath. People from Judah who once were forced to leave Jerusalem and live in Sepharad will take back the cities of southern Judah. 21 Powerful warriors will go up on Mount Zion,where they will rule the people living on Edom’s mountains. And the kingdom will belong to the Lord.
CAVE DWELLING EDOMITES LEFT EDOM TO SETTLED IN ISRAEL WHILE THE INDIGNEOUS 12 TRIBES WERE AWAY IN BABYLON CAPTIVITY. WHEN JUDAH RETURNED, EDOM JOINED FORCES WITH ARABS TO SEND JUDAH TO AMERICA IN CAPTIVITY, BUT EDOM BROKE THEIR TREATY TO SHARE ISRAEL WITH THE ARABS, WHICH BEGAN THE WAR BETWEEN THESE TWO NATIONS. TO FULFILL BIBLE PROPHESY EDOMITES CONVERTED TO JUDISAM, MIGRATED ON THEIR OWN TO EUROPE TO CLAIM THEMSELVES AS THE RETURNING JEWS OF ISREAL. THIS IS THE TRUE REASON WHY FATHER GOD RAISED UP HITLER AGAINST THEM.
Biblically that land is known as Ammon, Moab and Edom, and is of great significance in Bible prophecy. The Ammonites and Moabites were the children born of incest by Lot and his daughters, after they fled Sodom and Gomorrah. Edom is the land given by God to Esau and his seed. Traditionally these three nations, though related to Israel, have been her enemies.
NEHEMIAH 4: 7 ]But when Sanballat and Tobiah and the Arabs, Ammonites, and Ashdodites heard that the work was going ahead and that the gaps in the wall of Jerusalem were being repaired, they were furious. 8 They all made plans to come and fight against Jerusalem and throw us into confusion. 9 But we prayed to our God and guarded the city day and night to protect ourselves.
16 Then the Lord stirred up the Philistines and the Arabs, who lived near the Ethiopians, to attack Jehoram. 17 They marched against Judah, broke down its defenses, and carried away everything of value in the royal palace, including the king’s sons and his wives. Only his youngest son, Ahaziah, was spared.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EDOMITE ZIONIST AND THE INDIGNEOUS 12 TRIBES OF ISRAEL
ESAU> EDOM> EDOMITES CAVE DWELLERS > ZIONIST CONVERTED JEWS
1. Edomite converted Jews are not in anyway a nation associated to Almighty God's scattered 12 tribes of Israel or God's Covenat Promise. The son of God said satan was their Father and the synagogue of satan Revelations 2 and 3
2. Twins Jacob and Esau shared the same black birth parents Rachel and Issac
3. Ancestor Esau despised and forfeit his first born sacred birthright to and sold it to his black twin brother Jacob for a meal
4. Esau descendants become known as the Edomites
5. Edomites dwelt in the wilderness caves of Mt Petra Seir
6. Edomites were the first to establish a Kingdom
7. Edomites fought against Juda and Israel because they wanted God’s Holy Land for themselves
8. Edomites assisted Babylon in the burning and destruction of Israel
9. Edomite Kingdom moved to Israel during the Babylon captivity of the 12 Tribes of Israel
10. Edomite King Herod ordered the murder of all boy babies to kill the son of Almighty God
11. Edomites converted into Judaism, because they were doing satan’s work to take Almighty God’s Holy Land Hostage
12. Edomites converted Jews migrated themselves throughout Europe and America
13. Edomites converted Jews attempted to assimilate Germany, but Hilter witness what happened to Israel and stop them in their tracks
14. Edomites converted Jews established a conquest to world powers, grew to become Grecian, Roman Empire, America- Babylon
15. Edomites plotted with Israel’s enemies to erase from memory the existence of the Indigenous Hebrew Jewish Israelites
16. Edomites converted Jews prosecuted, murdered, and enslaved the Kingdom of Juda who return
17. Edomites converted Jews wanted to claim the Hebrew Jewish Heritage, God’s covenant promise and Holy Land
18. Edomites converted Jews went after the Kingdom of Juda who escaped into Africa to escape prosecution, death and slavery
19. Edomites converted Jews began the 1619 Atlantic Slave Trade in America, enslaved Kingdom of Juda in America
20. Edomites converted Jews plotted with the Catholic Church to give the Kingdom of Juda a different GOD – JESUS CHRIST
21. Edomite Converted Jews networked with counterparts- America’s White Supremacist to oppress, rape, murder millions of God’s people in slavery in America
22. Edomites converted Jews never relinquished control of Israel and they plotted with the Arabs to work with them in laying legitimacy claims to God’s Holy Land but their plan back fired against them, The Arabs wanted God’s Holy Land for themselves and became enemies of the Edomite converted Jews
23. Edomites converted Jews wanted the world to accept their legitimacy as God’s chosen Jewish people – so they plotted with European counterparts – descendants to portray themselves as the scattered Jews returning back to Israel,
25. Edomite converted Jews began a crusade called Zionism in 1948 to further strengthen satan’s stronghold over Israel
26. Edomites converted Jews made their generations and the world to believe they are the real Jews of Israel
27. Edomites Converted Jews is a condemn nation and will face Judgement day as Father God and the prophets has prophesied beforehand
INDIGNEOUS HEBREW ISRAELITES > 12 TRIBES OF ISRAEL
1. As shown from the map, the Edomites Zionist who occupy Israel today are not in anyway Father God's Holy people and should never be considered Jews, but only imposters, thieves and invaders
2. GOD PROMISE TO RESTORE ABRAM DESCENDANTS BACK TO CANAAN AFTER 400 YEARS FORIEGN CAPTIVITY & OPPRESSION Genesis 15: 12 As the sun was going down, Abram fell into a deep sleep, and a terrifying darkness came down over him.13 Then the Lord said to Abram, “You can be sure that your descendants will be strangers in a foreign land, where they will be oppressed as slaves for 400 years.14 But I will punish the nation that enslaves them, and in the end they will come away with great wealth.
3. ISRAEL MOVES HIS FAMILY TO EGYPT : GENESIS 46:2 And God spoke to Israel in a vision at night and said, “Jacob! Jacob!” “Here I am,” he replied. 3 “I am God, the God of your father,” he said. “Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for I will make you into a great nation there. 4 I will go down to Egypt with you, and I will surely bring you back again. And Joseph’s own hand will close your eyes.”
4. HOW THE 12 TRIBES OF ISRAEL BECAME TO BE : GENESIS 49:28 These are the tribes of Israel, twelve in all, and this was what their Father said to them. He blessed them, and he blessed each one with a suitable blessing.
5. THE ISRAELITES BECAME SLAVES IN EGYPT : EXODUS 1: 6 Joseph and all his brothers died. So did all their children. 7 The people of Israel had many children. The number of them greatly increased. There were so many of them that they filled the land.8 Then a new king came to power in Egypt. Joseph didn’t mean anything to him. 9 “Look,” he said to his people. “The Israelites are far too many for us. 10 Come. We must deal with them carefully. If we don’t, there will be even more of them. Then if war breaks out, they’ll join our enemies. They’ll fight against us and leave the country.”11 So the Egyptians put slave drivers over the people of Israel. The slave drivers treated them badly and made them work hard. The Israelites built the cities of Pithom and Rameses so Pharaoh could store things there.12 But the worse the slave drivers treated the Israelites, the more Israelites there were. So the Egyptians became afraid of them.13 They made them work hard. They didn’t show them any pity.14 The people suffered because of their hard labor. The slave drivers forced them to work with bricks and mud. And they made them do all kinds of work in the fields. The Egyptians didn’t show them any pity at all. They made them work very hard.
6. TOTAL TIME ISRAEL SPENT IN EYGPT From the time israel moved to Israel to the time God delivered them from Egypt slavery was a total 430 Years: The Exodus Begins Exodus 12: 40 Now the duration of the Israelites’ stay in Egypt was 430 years.
7. THE TRIBES WANDERE IN THE DESERT FOR 40 YEARS: THE TRIBES OF EAST OF THE JORDAN Numbers 32: 13 The Lord's anger burnded against Israel and He made them wandered in the wilderness for forty yers, until thewhole generation who had done evil in His sight was gone.
8. GOD GIVE THE LAW AND DECREES TO MOSES FOR THE 12 TRIBES Obedience Commanded Deuteronomy 4: 1 Now, Israel, hear the decrees and laws I am about to teach you. Follow them so that you may live and may go in and take possession of the land the Lord, the God of your ancestors, is giving you. 2 Do not addto what I command you and do not subtract from it, but keep the commands of the Lord your God that I give you.
9. GOD PROMISES CURSES & CAPTIVITY IF ISREAL DISOBEY HIS LAWS, THESE CURSES CONTINUE TO EFFECT JUDA TODAY : DEUTERONOMY 28: 32 You will watch as your sons and daughters are taken away as slaves. Your heart will break for them, but you won’t be able to help them. 33 A foreign nation you have never heard about will eat the crops you worked so hard to grow. You will suffer under constant oppression and harsh treatment. 34 You will go mad because of all the tragedy you see around you. 36 “The Lord will exile you and your king to a nation unknown to you and your ancestors. There in exile you will worship gods of wood and stone! 37 You will become an object of horror, ridicule, and mockery among all the nations to which the Lord sends you.
caused a famine in Ca that sent
Hebrew Israelites disobeyed God
Twins Jacob and Esaus
12 Tribes of Israel Wanderings in the Wilderness
Deuteronomy 2: 2 Then we turned back and set out toward the wilderness along the route to the Red Sea, as the Lord had directed me. For a long time we made our way around the hill country of Seir.2 Then the Lord said to me, 3 “You have made your way around this hill country long enough; now turn north. 4 Give the people these orders:‘You are about to pass through the territory of your relatives the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. They will be afraid of you, but be very careful. 5 Do not provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land, not even enough to put your foot on. I have given Esau the hill country of Seir as his own.
The kings of Edom
during the early times, were determined by appointment instead of hereditary. A few verses in the first Chronicles state that a king and several chieftains ruled the land of Edom. In the book of Genesis, Edom was first occupied and ruled by Esau, the elder son of Isaac. After his rule, many other kings followed his reign even before Israel had any kings. The kings of Edom first are show on thei Bible Timeline starting in 1400 BC
The King of Edom refused the Israelites to pass Edom and to enter the land of Canaan. This event was mentioned in Numbers, and the Israelites made a detour around Edom because of the king’s show of power and force. God commanded the children of Israel to reach Canaan without waging war against the Edomites. This act of the Israelites did not cause the king of Edom to attack the people; however, he was prepared for any signs of aggression.
The Kingdom of Edom
Bozrah was the capital of Edom, and the early inhabitants of the land were the Horites. This group of people were forced to leave by the Edomites tribe. In the second Chronicles, the Edomites were often at war with the king of Judah and Israel. It is also interesting to note that the Israelites and Edomites were related in terms of language and ancestry.
The Edomites acquired their livelihood from caravan trades in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Levant, and southern Arabia. The kingdom of Edom was among the many states where trade was the main source of income because of the country’s lack of fertile land. The Edomites participated in trades in far locations such as India, and they departed from the Ezion-Geber port.
The economy of Edom flourished because of trades, although there was a strip of land suitable for farming. The Edomites exported various products from the Dead Sea region. These products include balsam and salt, which were used for temple incense and perfume.
What Part of the Bible Mentions the Kings of Edom
- 1 Chronicles 1:43-54. The kings of Edom were enumerated, and these rulers led the kingdom one after the other, even before there were kings in the land of Israel. –
- Amos 2:1. The Lord has shown his mighty power to defeat the kings of Edom. –
- Genesis 36:43-50. Esau was mentioned as the father of the Edomites. –
- 2 Kings 3:7-9. The king of Israel joined the king of Judah, and they completed a seven days’ journey with no water for their army. –
- Numbers 20:14-16. Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to meet the king of Edom. –
- Judges 11:16-18. The Israelites sent messengers to the ruler of Edom, and pleaded for entrance to the land. –
- 2 Samuel 8:14. King David conquered the kingdom of Edom. –
- Jeremiah 27:3-6. The Edomites were defeated and conquered by the Babylonians, under the rule of King Nebuchadnezzar. –
- 2 Chronicles 25:11-12. Amaziah conquered Edom. –
- Genesis 25:25. The Edomites tribe were the descendants of Esau, and the people lived in the mountain fortresses of the land.
Edom in Smiths Bible Dictionary (red). The name Edom was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to Esau was hence called "the country of Edom," Ge 32:3 and his descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. It embraced the narrow mountainous tract (about 100 miles long by 20 broad) extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the northern end of the Gulf of Elath to near the southern end of the Dead Sea. The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah (Buseireh). Sela (Petra) appears to have been the principal stronghold in the days of Amaziah (B.C. 838). 2Ki 14:7 Elath and Ezion-geber were the seaports. 2Sa 8:14; 1Ki 9:26 History. --Esau's bitter hatred to his brother Jacob for fraudulently obtaining his blessing appears to have been inherited by his latest posterity. The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the Israelites to pass through their land. Nu 20:18-21 For a period of 400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. They were then attacked and defeated by Saul, 1Sa 14:47 and some forty years later by David. 2Sa 8:13,14 In the reign of Jehoshaphat (B.c. 914) the Edomites attempted to invade Israel, but failed. 2Ch 20:22 They joined Nebuchadnezzar when that king besieged Jerusalem. For their cruelty at this time they were fearfully denounced by the later prophets. Isa 34:5-8; 63:1-4; Jer 49:17 After this they settled in southern Israel, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper. But during the warlike rule of the Maccabees they were again completely subdued, and even forced to conform to Jewish laws and rites, and submit to the government of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now incorporated with the Jewish nation. They were idolaters. 2Ch 25:14,15,20 Their habits were singular. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their name implies, troglodytes, or dwellers in caves; and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their country. Everywhere we meet with caves and grottos hewn in the soft sandstone strata
THE SON OF ALMIGHTY GOD CALLED EDOMITES ZIONIST CHILDREN OF THE FATHER OF LIES
AND NOT REAL JEWS - READ IT FOR YOURSELF
October 22, 2017
Please take into account ,
All nations and leaders throughout my kindom on earth shall heed to my commands and instructions to release all christians, black Hebrews israelites who wishes to return to Israel and follow me. You must not attempt to hinder, delay , harrass, prosecute or stop them from returning. European America ( Babylon) you shall bring my children back to me, but not the way they left, but you will begin immediately returning them by Cruise Ships throughout the continent. All Hebrew Jewish Israelites prisoners within your jail cells who have not committed murder, sex or human trafficing or drug trafficking shall be released and shipped on seperate ships, I will personally deal with them. All leaders of Governing Goverments, North and South America, Europe, Antarctica , Asia, Africa and Australia and all nation around the world including the United League of Nations mush now by my command begin establishing offices close to shipping docks to register my returning people. Each county must pull together all availbale resources to ensure their safe return and settlement. If anyone disobey me, the Angel of death and all of Heaven's Armies - Natural Disasters, plagues will carry out all that I have said today. These commands and instructions are just, now let it be done! I the Lord your God command thee, behold the lord your God instruct thee for I shall not be moved nor shall I not withhold my hand of judgement against thee, I the God of Heaven's Armies has spoken, thus sayeth the Lord of all Heaven's Host.
MANDATORY -MUST WATCH & lEARN
"I know about your suffering and your poverty--but you are rich! I know the blasphemy of those opposing you. They say they are Jews, but they are not, because their synagogue belongs to Satan. (Revelation 2:9 )
BLACK SLAVE BABIES USED AS ALIGATOR BAIT
14th St. 8th Ave. Station , New York City
AMERICA HAS A DEBT TO BE PAID
kkk song says go if they don't like our southern ways
NO! WE DON'T LIKE YOUR SOUTHERN & ZIONIST WAYS
WE CRY, WE CRY FOR TONIGHT GOD'S COMING IN THE MORNING , WE CRY , WE CRY FOR TONIGHT ,
PLEASE DON'T COME TILL THE MORNING, TILL THE MORNING, OH! ITS NOT SAFE TO SAY, THAT I DIDN'T GIVE YOU A WARNING!!!
ZIONIST YOU ARE NOT JEWS- KNOW YOUR HISTORY
CAVE DWELLERS EDOMITES LEFT EDOM TO SETTLED IN ISRAEL, MIGRATED ON THEIR OWN TO EUROPE AND RETURN TO ISRAEL TO MAKE FALSE CLAIMS THEY ARE JEWS
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: [ˌaʃkəˈnazim], singular: [ˌaʃkəˈnazi], Modern Hebrew: [aʃkenaˈzim, aʃkenaˈzi]; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז Y'hudey Ashkenaz), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish (a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently. Throughout their time in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music, and science.Ashkenazim originate from the Jews who settled along the Rhine River, in Western Germany and Northern France. There they became a distinct diaspora community with a unique way of life that adapted traditions from Babylon, The Land of Israel, and the Western Mediterranean to their new environment. The Ashkenazi religious rite developed in cities such as Mainz, Worms, and Troyes. The eminent French Rishon Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki (Rashi) would have a significant impact on the Jewish religion.In the late Middle Ages, the majority of the Ashkenazi population shifted steadily eastward, moving out of the Holy Roman Empire into the areas later comprised in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (comprising parts of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine). In the course of the late 18th and 19th centuries, those Jews who remained in or returned to the German lands experienced a cultural reorientation; under the influence of the Haskalah and the struggle for emancipation, as well as the intellectual and cultural ferment in urban centers, they gradually abandoned the use of Yiddish, while developing new forms of Jewish religious life and cultural identity.
LIVE SCIENCE: Surprise: Ashkenazi Jews Are Genetically European By Tia Ghose, Staff Writer | October 8, 2013 11:00am
The origin of the Ashkenazi Jews, who come most recently from Europe, has largely been shrouded in mystery. But a new study suggests that at least their maternal lineage may derive largely from Europe.Though the finding may seem intuitive, it contradicts the notion that European Jews mostly descend from people who left Israel and the Middle East around 2,000 years ago. Instead, a substantial proportion of the population originates from local Europeans who converted to Judaism, said study co-author Martin Richards, an archaeogeneticist at the University of Huddersfield in England.Tangled legacy Little is known about the history of Ashkenazi Jews before they were expelled from the Mediterranean and settled in what is now Poland around the 12th century. On average, all Ashkenazi Jews are genetically as closely related to each other as fourth or fifth cousins, said Dr. Harry Ostrer, a pathology, pediatrics and genetics professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York and the author of "Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People" (Oxford University Press, 2012).But depending on whether the lineage gets traced through maternal or paternal DNA or through the rest of the genome, researchers got very different answers for whether Ashkenazi originally came from Europe or the Near East.Past research found that 50 percent to 80 percent of DNA from the Ashkenazi Y chromosome, which is used to trace the male lineage, originated in the Near East, Richards said. That supported a story wherein Jews came from Israel and largely eschewed intermarriage when they settled in Europe. [The Holy Land: 7 Amazing Archaeological Finds]But historical documents tell a slightly different tale. Based on accounts such as those of Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, by the time of the destruction of the Second Temple in A.D. 70, as many as 6 million Jews were living in the Roman Empire, but outside Israel, mainly in Italy and Southern Europe. In contrast, only about 500,000 lived in Judea, said Ostrer, who was not involved in the new study."The major Jewish communities were outside Judea," Ostrer told LiveScience.Maternal DNARichards and his colleagues analyzed mitochondrial DNA, which is contained in the cytoplasm of the egg and passed down only from the mother, from more than 3,500 people throughout the Near East, the Caucusus and Europe, including Ashkenazi Jews.The team found that four founders were responsible for 40 percent of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA, and that all of these founders originated in Europe. The majority of the remaining people could be traced to other European lineages.All told, more than 80 percent of the maternal lineages of Ashkenazi Jews could be traced to Europe, with only a few lineages originating in the Near East.Virtually none came from the North Caucasus, located along the border between Europe and Asia between the Black and Caspian seas.The finding should thoroughly debunk one of the most questionable, but still tenacious, hypotheses: that most Ashkenazi Jews can trace their roots to the mysterious Khazar Kingdom that flourished during the ninth century in the region between the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire, Richards and Ostrer said.The genetics suggest many of the founding Ashkenazi women were actually converts from local European populations."The simplest explanation was that it was mainly women who converted and they married with men who'd come from the Near East," Richards told LiveScience.Another possibility is that Jews actively converted both men and women among local populations at this time, although researchers would need more detailed study of paternal lineages to test that hypothesis, Richards said.Follow Tia Ghose on Twitterand Google+. Follow LiveScience @livescience, Facebook & Google+. Original article on LiveScience.